The filling pharmacy has a corresponding responsibility to ensure that the prescription is valid. Citation needed In the United States, in order for a prescription for a controlled substance to be valid, it must be issued for a legitimate medical purpose by a licensed practitioner acting in the course of legitimate doctor-patient relationship. There are many instances where a practitioner issues a prescription, brokered by an Internet server, for a controlled substance to a “patient” s/he has never met.

There also have been reports of such pharmacies dispensing substandard products. Many of these pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, and in fact, many of them are actually operated by brick-and-mortar community pharmacies that serve consumers online and those that walk in their door. Consultant pharmacists most typically work in nursing homes , but are increasingly branching into other institutions and non-institutional settings.

Patients who have difficulty swallowing the tablet may prefer to suck the medicated lollipop instead. Compounding is the practice of preparing drugs in new forms. Pharmacies within hospitals differ considerably from community pharmacies.

It is also often a requirement that the owner of a pharmacy must be a registered pharmacist, although this is not the case in all jurisdictions, such that many retailers (including supermarkets and mass merchandisers ) now include a pharmacy as a department of their store. Pharmacists themselves may have expertise in a medical specialty. Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869), was, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments.

In Baghdad the first pharmacies, or drug stores, were established in 754, 10 under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age By the 9th century, these pharmacies were state-regulated. The place of pharmacists in society was expressly defined in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). In Japan, at the end of the Asuka period (538-710) and the early Nara period (710-794), the men who fulfilled roles similar to those of modern pharmacists were highly respected.

Many Sumerian (late 6th millennium BC - early 2nd millennium BC) cuneiform clay tablets record prescriptions for medicine. Once the Pharm.D. is attained after the fourth year professional school, the student is then eligible to take the North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam (NAPLEX) and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE) to work as a professional pharmacist. Legislation requires the supervision of certain pharmacy technician’s activities by a pharmacist.

Those who wish to practice both pharmacy (patient oriented) and pharmacology (a biomedical science requiring the scientific method) receive separate training and degrees unique to either discipline. Pharmacology is sometimes considered as the 4th discipline of pharmacy. Under Standard Option, your cost share may be waived for up to four generic prescription fills if you switch to a generic drug replacement from a brand name prescription.
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